Latest Cdc Guidelines For Travel

Latest Cdc Guidelines For Travel – Summary of Guidelines for Reducing the Impact of COVID-19 on Individuals, Communities, and Health Care Systems — United States, August 2022

High levels of immunity and availability of effective COVID-19 prevention and management tools have reduced the risk of medically significant illness and death.

Latest Cdc Guidelines For Travel

Latest Cdc Guidelines For Travel

To prevent medically significant COVID-19 illness and death, persons should understand their risk, take steps to protect themselves and others with vaccines, therapeutics and non-pharmaceutical interventions when needed, get tested and wear masks when exposed, get tested if symptomatic, and isolate for ≥5 days if infected.

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Medically significant illness, death, and strain on the health care system can be reduced by vaccination and therapeutic agents to prevent serious illness, supplemented by the use of multiple prevention methods to reduce exposure risk and an emphasis on protecting persons at high risk for serious illness. disease.

As SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, continues to circulate worldwide, high levels of vaccine- and infection-induced immunity and the availability of effective treatments and prevention tools have significantly reduced the risk of medically significant COVID-19 disease ( severe acute illness and post-COVID-19 conditions) and associated hospitalization and death (1). These circumstances now allow public health efforts to minimize the individual and societal health impacts of COVID-19 by focusing on sustainable measures to further reduce medically significant disease as well as to reduce strain on the health care system, while barriers to social, educational, and economic activity (2). Individual risk for medically significant COVID-19 depends on a person’s risk for exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and their risk of developing severe disease if infected (3). Exposure risk can be mitigated by nonpharmaceutical interventions, including improving ventilation, use of masks or respirators indoors, and testing (4). The risk for medically significant disease increases with age, disability status, and underlying medical conditions, but is greatly reduced by immunity derived from vaccination, previous infection, or both, as well as timely access to effective biomedical preventive measures and treatments (3, 5) . ‘s public health recommendations change in response to developing science, the availability of biomedical and public health tools, and changes in context, such as levels of immunity in the population and currently circulating variants. recommends a strategic approach to reduce the impact of COVID-19 on health and society that relies on vaccination and therapeutics to prevent serious disease; use of multicomponent preventive measures where possible; and particular emphasis on the protection of persons at high risk of serious illness. Efforts to expand access to vaccination and therapeutics, including the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis for immunocompromised persons, antivirals, and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, must be intensified to reduce the risk of medically significant disease and death. Efforts to protect persons at high risk for serious disease must ensure that all persons have access to information to understand their individual risk, as well as effective and equitable access to vaccination, therapeutics, testing and other preventive measures. Current priorities for preventing medically significant disease should focus on ensuring that persons 1) understand their risk, 2) take steps to protect themselves and others through vaccines, therapeutics and non-pharmaceutical interventions when necessary, 3) receive tests and wear masks if exposed, and 4) receive tests if symptomatic, and isolate for ≥5 days if infected.

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COVID-19 vaccination. COVID-19 vaccines are highly protective against severe disease and death and offer a lesser degree of protection against asymptomatic and mild infection (6). Receipt of a primary series alone, in the absence of being up-to-date with vaccination* by receipt of all recommended booster doses, provides minimal protection against infection and transmission (3, 6). Being up-to-date on vaccination provides a transient period of increased protection against infection and carryover to the most recent dose, although protection may wane over time. The rates of COVID-19-associated hospitalization and death are significantly higher among unvaccinated adults than among those up to date with the recommended COVID-19 vaccination, especially adults aged ≥65 years (5, 7). Emerging evidence suggests that vaccination before infection also provides some protection against post-COVID-19 conditions,

And that vaccination among persons with post-COVID-19 conditions may help reduce their symptoms (8). Continuing to increase vaccination coverage and ensuring that persons are up to date with vaccination is essential to prevent serious outcomes. Overall booster dose coverage in the United States remains low,

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Which is of concern given the significant reduction in risk for serious illness and death that booster doses provide and the importance of booster doses in counteracting declines in vaccine-induced immunity. Public health efforts to expand coverage and promote equitable access to vaccination have resulted in similar rates of primary series coverage across most racial and ethnic groups (9); however, racial and ethnic disparities in booster coverage have emerged (10). Supporting community partnerships and leveraging reliable sources of information must continue to eliminate persistent disparities and achieve equity in booster dose coverage, including through increased education efforts and the promotion of equitable vaccination outreach. Public health efforts must continue to promote up-to-date vaccination for all, particularly with vaccines targeting emerging new variants that may be more transmissible or immune-evasive.

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Pre-exposure prophylaxis. COVID-19 vaccine efficacy against serious outcomes is lower in persons who are immunocompromised than in those who are not, and persons who are immunocompromised and have COVID-19 are at increased risk for intensive care unit admission and death while hospitalized is, regardless of their vaccination status (11, 12). Pre-exposure prophylaxis with Evusheld

May help protect moderately to severely immunocompromised persons who may not mount an adequate immune response after COVID-19 vaccination, as well as persons for whom COVID-19 vaccination is not recommended due to their personal risk of severe adverse reactions. In addition to early antiviral treatment if infected, persons who are moderately or severely immunocompromised may benefit from COVID-19 pre-exposure prophylactic medication to help prevent severe COVID-19 disease, as an adjunct to up-to-date vaccination for themselves and their close contacts, early testing, non-pharmaceutical interventions and rapid access to treatment if they are infected.

Latest Cdc Guidelines For Travel

Medicines to treat COVID-19. Antiviral medications (Lagevrio [molnupiravir], Paxlovid [nirmatrelvir and ritonavir], and Veklury [remdesivir]) and monoclonal antibodies (bebtelovimab) are available to treat COVID-19 in persons at increased risk for severe disease, ** including older adults, unvaccinated persons, and those with certain medical conditions

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(13). Antiviral drugs reduce the risk of hospitalization and death when administered soon after diagnosis. The federal Test to Treat initiative facilitates rapid, no-cost access to oral COVID-19 treatment for eligible persons who receive a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result.

Continued efforts are needed to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in receipt of monoclonal antibody therapies (14) and disparities in dispensing rates for oral antiviral prescriptions by community social vulnerability (15).

Monitoring COVID-19 Community Levels to Guide COVID-19 Prevention Efforts. Persons can use information about the current level of COVID-19 impact on their community to decide which prevention behaviors to use and when (at all times or at specific times), based on their own risk of serious illness and that of members of their household, their risk tolerance and environment-specific factors. ‘s COVID-19 community levels reflect the current effects of COVID-19 on communities and identify geographic areas that may experience increases in severe COVID-19-related outcomes based on hospitalization rates, hospital bed occupancy, and COVID-19 prevalence during the preceding period** * (1). Prevention recommendations based on COVID-19 Community Levels have the express goals of reducing medically significant illness and limiting strain on the health care system. At all COVID-19 community levels (low, medium, and high), recommendations emphasize staying up-to-date with vaccination, improving ventilation, testing symptomatic and exposed persons, and isolating infected persons. At the medium COVID-19 community level, recommended strategies include adding protection for persons at high risk for severe disease (eg, use of masks or respirators that provide a higher level of carrier protection). At the high COVID-19 community level, additional recommendations focus on all persons wearing masks indoors in public and further increase protection of high-risk populations.

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As SARS-CoV-2 continues to circulate, changes in community levels of COVID-19 help a jurisdiction signal when to stop or increase the use of certain prevention strategies based on an individual’s level of risk for severe disease or that of their household or social contacts. The COVID-19 community levels provide a broad framework for public health officials and jurisdictions to use and adapt as needed based on local context by combining local information to determine the need for public health interventions.

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Nonpharmaceutical interventions. Implementation of multiple prevention strategies helps protect individuals and communities from SARS-CoV-2 exposure and reduces the risk of medically significant illness and death by reducing the risk of infection (table). Implementation of multiple non-pharmaceutical preventive interventions can complement the use of vaccines and therapeutics, particularly as community levels of COVID-19 increase and among persons at high risk for severe disease. ‘s COVID-19 prevention recommendations no longer differentiate based on a person’s vaccination status because breakthrough infections occur, although they are generally mild (16), and persons who have had COVID-19 but are not vaccinated have a degree of protection against severe disease from their previous infection (17). In addition to strategies that are not recommended at all

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